Document Type



Biological and Biomedical Sciences


Background: Human Kidney Injury Molecule-1, also known as HAVCR-1 (Hepatitis A virus cellular receptor 1), belongs to the cell-surface protein of immunoglobulin superfamily involved in the phagocytosis by acting as scavenger receptor epithelial cells. The study focused on pinpointing the mechanisms and genes that interact with KIM-1.
Methods: This in-silico study was done from March 2019 to December 2019. The Enrichment and protein-protein interaction (PPI) network carefully choose proteins. In addition, the diagramed gene data sets were accomplished using FunRich version 3.1.3. It was done to unveil the proteins that may affect the regulation of HAVCR1 or may be regulated by this protein. These genes were then further considered in pathway analysis to discover the dysregulated pathways in diabetic nephropathy. The long list of differentially expressed genes is meaningless without pathway analysis.
Results: Critical pathways that are dysregulated in diabetic nephropathy patients have been identified. These include Immune System (Total = 237, P < 0.05), Innate Immune System (Total = 140, P < 0.05), Cytokine Signaling Immune system (Total = 116, P < 0.05), Adaptive Immune System (Total = 85) and Neutrophil degranulation (Total = 78).
Conclusion: The top 5 genes that are interacting directly with HIVCR1 include CASP3, CCL2, SPP1, B2M, and TIMP1 with degrees 161, 144, 108, 107, and 105 respectively for Immune system pathways (Innate Immune System, Cytokine Signaling Immune system, Adaptive Immune System and Neutrophil degranulation).


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Publication (Name of Journal)

BMC Nephrology

Creative Commons License

Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.