Neonatal fluid and electrolytes profile effect on amphotericin B associated nephrotoxicity in neonatal tertiary care unit of Karachi-Pakistan

Document Type



Biological and Biomedical Sciences; Paediatrics and Child Health


Objectives: Amphotericin-B (d-AmB) has a broader anti-fungal spectrum and is used for neonatal invasive-fungal-infections especially invasive-candidiasis (IC). To prevent d-AmB-induced nephrotoxicity, renal protective effect of fluid and electrolyte management has been established among adults; in this study, the authors determined this effect among neonates.
Methods: In this retrospective cohort study, the authors reviewed neonatal medical records, admitted to neonatal intensive care unit and received d-AmB therapy. Patients were divided into, renal-insufficiency-group (RIG) and the non-renal-insufficiency-group (NIG).
Results: A total of 90 cases were analyzed, 41 composed RIG and 49 NIG. Renal insufficiency (RI) was developed on 1.7 (0.84) and 7.8 (1.21) days of d-AmB therapy in 26 (63%) and 15 (37%) cases respectively. Bivariate and multivariate analysis demonstrate that >4 m Eq/kg/d sodium intake across all-time points was significantly (p < 0.0001) associated with reduced risk of RI [(phase-I: AOR: 0.96; 95% CI: 0.91-0.99), (phase-II: AOR: 0.84; 95% CI: 0.68-0.92) and (phase-III: AOR: 0.90; 95% CI: 0.86-0.95)]. While adequate fluid intake reduced the likelihood of RI if started before and initial 2 days of d-AmB therapy.
Conclusions: Adequate hydration before and 48 hours after d-AmB therapy and >4 mEq/kg/day sodium intake before and through d-AmB therapy may protect neonatal RI.


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Publication (Name of Journal)

Expert Opinion on Drug Safety