Coronary sinus ablation is a key player substrate in recurrence of persistent atrial fibrillation

Naseer Ahmed, Aga Khan University
Shahida Perveen, Foundation University Islamabad, Islamabad, Pakistan
Adeela Mehmood, Liaqat National Medical College, Karachi, Pakistan
Gulab Fatima Rani, University of York, York, United Kingdom
Giulio Molon, IRCCS Sacro Cuore Don Calabria Hospital, Negrar, Verona, Italy


Atrial fibrillation (AF) is the most frequent atrial arrhythmia. During the last few decades, owing to numerous advancements in the field of electrophysiology, we reached satisfactory outcomes for paroxysmal AF with the help of ablation procedures. But the most challenging type is still persistent AF. The recurrence rate of AF in patients with persistent AF is very high, which shows the inadequacy of pulmonary vein isolation (PVI). Over the last few decades, we have been trying to gain insight into AF mechanisms, and have come to the conclusion that there must be some triggers and substrates other than pulmonary veins. According to many studies, PVI alone is not enough to deal with persistent AF. The purpose of our review is to summarize updates and to clarify the role of coronary sinus (CS) in AF induction and propagation. This review will provide updated knowledge on developmental, histological, and macroscopic anatomical aspects of CS with its role as arrhythmogenic substrate. This review will also inform readers about application of CS in other electrophysiological procedures.