Document Type



Biological and Biomedical Sciences


Blood lead levels of healthy Karachi population were estimated. Mean levels for males, females, soldiers and school children were 34.4, 31.8, 29.9 and 38.2 micrograms/dl respectively. About 93% cases of either sex had elevated lead levels, of whom 30% males and 10% females had levels above the safety limits (40 micrograms/dl). Soldiers living in relatively pollution free area though had levels lower than the rest of the population but 91% had levels over 25 micrograms/dl and only two had acceptable levels. Ninety-two percent children showed levels above 25 micrograms/dl with a large number having levels over 40 micrograms/dl. A very small percentage had normal levels. Pollution by traffic exhaust was assumed to be the principal cause for these high levels.

Publication (Name of Journal)

Journal of Pakistan Medical Association