Dietary patterns are associated with hyperhomocysteinemia in an urban Pakistani population.

Document Type



Biological and Biomedical Sciences


Little attention has been given to the association of dietary patterns with plasma homocysteine. Our objective in this study was to identify major dietary patterns and investigate their association with plasma homocysteine. In a cross-sectional survey, 872 healthy adults (355 males, 517 females, aged 18-60 y) were enrolled from an urban population in Karachi. Dietary intake was assessed by a FFQ. We used factor analysis to define major dietary patterns. Fasting concentrations of plasma or serum homocysteine, folate, pyridoxal-phosphate (PLP, coenzyme form of vitamin B-6), and vitamin B-12 were measured. Three major dietary patterns were identified and labeled as "prudent diet," "high animal-protein diet," and "high plant-protein diet." We observed a protective effect of the prudent dietary pattern for the highest quartile of intake compared with the lowest quartile of hyperhomocysteinemia when the model was adjusted for age, gender, household income, BMI, tobacco chewing, and smoking [OR = 0.52 (95% Cl = 0.30-0.90), P = 0.01]. The high plant-protein diet pattern was inversely related to hyperhomocysteinemia, with a higher intake being protective. Compared with the 1st quartile, the adjusted OR was 0.42 195% Cl = 0.25-0.69, P = 0.001) for the 4th quartile. The high animal-protein diet was positively associated with hyperhomocysteinemia, with participants in the highest quartile of intake having the greatest increase in risk [OR = 2.10 (95% Cl = 1.22-3.60), P = 0.007]. Plasma homocysteine concentrations appeared to be correlated more with circulating folate (r = -0.25, P < 0.0011 than with PLP (r = 0.02, P = 0.6631 or vitamin B-12 (r = -0.16, P < 0.0011. A diet rich in fruits and uncooked vegetables decreased the risk of hyperhomocysteinemia, whereas diets rich in red meat, chicken, and tea with milk were positively associated with hyperhomocysteinemia.

Publication (Name of Journal)

Journal of Nutrition