Socially available heroin powders--their chemical compositions and reproductive and behavioural effects on female rats

Document Type



Biological and Biomedical Sciences


Morphine is one of such substances which produce very intense euphoria and a prolonged period of relaxation and sedation. These opioids are known to cause modifications in neuroendocrine system during different stages of life, ranging from fetal through postnatal to adult. Heroin, an opioid, is a derivative of morphine and its long-term use, both in males and females, is associated with alterations in sexual behaviour and changes in endocrine functions. In females, hormonal imbalance thus resulted, can lead to amenorrhea and in some cases infertility. In Pakistan, heroin is available mixed with different additives in a variety of forms. Two varieties (S1 and S2) procured from patients visiting Drug Rehabilitating Clinic in the Civil Hospital, Karachi, were analysed for their qualitative and quantitative properties.


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Pakistan Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences