Document Type



Biological and Biomedical Sciences


Naegleria fowleri, is a free-living amoeba (FLA) known to infect humans and cause a fatal disease called primary amoebic meningoencephalitis (PAM). All of the patients are commonly admitted to the emergency room (ER). Often, treatment in the ER is delayed due to the rarity of disease leading to a delay in the diagnosis and late arrival of patients to the ER. The attempts to reduce raised intracranial pressure and subsequent herniation of the brain stem are challenging and become the cause of death in the affected patients during their stay in ER. Use of drugs like mannitol to reduce raised intra-cerebral pressure (ICP) could prove dangerous in the presence of cerebral haemorrhage and this fact could be overlooked during the management of patients with PAM. No precise therapy is followed for PAM, and most often a course of broad spectrum anti-protozoal drugs is employed. A CDC recommended drug miltefosine has show success in early diagnosed cases. So far, there is no clinical staging of PAM, and patients are managed for the complications that develop while their stay in the ER. Given the health scare associated with N. fowleri in countries with tropical climates, and its potential ability to cause severe meningoencephalitis that often progresses to lethal outcomes, we believe it is imperative to stage PAM into clear progressive stages to help its management in the ER and debate its therapeutic gains. Such a clinical staging could aid in efforts to diagnose and treat PAM. Furthermore, it will help in raising public awareness, in educating healthcare and allied personnel



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Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License.