Antioxidant, Antimicrobial Properties and Phenolics of Different Solvent Extracts from Bark, Leaves and Seeds of Pongamia pinnata (L.) Pierre

Zahid Iqbal Sajid, University of Agriculture
Farooq Anwar, University of Agriculture
Ghulam Shabir, University of Agriculture
Ghulam Rasul, National Institute for Biotechnology and Genetic Engineering
Khalid M. Alkharfy, King Saud University
Anwar Gilani, Aga Khan University


This study appraises the antioxidant and antimicrobial attributes of various solvent extracts (absolute methanol, aqueous methanol, absolute ethanol, aqueous ethanol, absolute acetone, aqueous acetone, and deionized water) from bark, leaves and seeds of Pongamia pinnata (L.) Pierre. Maximum extraction yield of antioxidant components from bark (16.31%), leaves (11.42%) and seeds (21.51%) of P. pinnata was obtained using aqueous methanol (20:80). Of the extracts tested, the bark extract, obtained with aqueous methanol, exhibited greater levels of total phenolics [6.94 g GAE/100 g dry weight (DW)], total flavonoids (3.44 g CE/100 g DW), inhibition of linoleic acid peroxidation (69.23%) and DPPH radical scavenging activity (IC50 value, 3.21 μg/mL), followed by leaves and seeds extracts. Bark extract tested against a set of bacterial and fungal strains also revealed OPEN ACCESS the strongest antimicrobial activity with the largest inhibition zone and lowest minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC). HPLC analysis of aqueous methanol extracts from bark, leaves and seeds indicated the presence of protocatechuic, ellagic, ferulic, gallic, gentisic, 4-hydroxybenzoic and 4-hydroxycinnamic acids in bark (1.50–6.70 mg/100 g DW); sorbic, ferulic, gallic, salicylic and p-coumaric acids in leaves (1.18–4.71 mg/100 g DW); vanillic, gallic and tannic acids in seeds (0.52–0.65 mg/100 g DW) as the main phenolic acids. The present investigation concludes that the tested parts of P. pinnata, in particular the bark, have strong potential for the isolation of antioxidant and antimicrobial agents for functional food and pharmaceutical uses.