Results of a Cross-Sectional Survey About Lipid-Management Practices Among Cardiologists in Pakistan: Assessment of Adherence to Published Treatment Guidelines

Document Type



Biological and Biomedical Sciences


Objectives: The aims of this study were to assess how closely cardiologists in Pakistan followed published recommendations for lipid management and to identify the factors associated with such behavior. Methods: A cross-sectional survey was delivered in person between September and December 2007 to all cardiologists practicing in 4 major cities in Pakistan (Karachi, Lahore, Quetta, and Peshawar). A standard questionnaire was used to obtain information from cardiologists. Adherence to the guidelines established by the 2004 National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel III was computed based on answers to 14 questions, each correct answer (ie, the answer that followed the guidelines) was assigned 1 point, for a maximum cumulative score of 14. Multivariable linear regression was performed to determine the factors independently associated with guideline knowledge. Results: A total of 295 cardiologists were approached, 239 consented to participate (overall response rate, 81.0%). The median score was 9 out of a maximum of 14 (interquartile range, 8-11). There were important points of divergence from practice recommendations, including suboptimal targets for low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) (65 years (41.8% [100/239]) and female patients (46.4% [1.11/239]). In the adjusted analysis, experienced physicians, interventional cardiologists, and those who pursued continuing medical education activities (jour-nals and conferences) had higher scores (P = 0.005, P = 0.041, P = 0.008, and P = 0.001, respectively). Conclusion: We found important self-reported departures from recommended lipid-management guidelines among cardiologists in Pakistan.


Clinical Therapeutics