The immune paradox of SARS-CoV-2: Lymphocytopenia and autoimmunity evoking features in COVID-19 and possible treatment modalities

Document Type

Review Article


Biological and Biomedical Sciences


SARS-CoV-2 causes multiorgan damage to vital organs and tissue that are known to be due to a combination of tissue tropisms and cytokine-mediated damage that it can incite in COVID-19. The effects of SARS-Co-2 on the lymphocytes and therefore on the immune response have attracted attention recently in COVID-19 to understand its effects in causing a chronic state of ongoing infection with Long-COVID. The associated lymphopaenia and autoimmune disease state, which is an apparent paradox, needs to be researched to dissect possible mechanisms underlying this state. This paper attempts to unravel the aforesaid immune paradox effects of SARS-CoV-2 on the lymphocytes and discusses appropriate treatment modalities with antiviral drugs and nutraceuticals which could prove virucidal in SARS-CoV-2 seeding monocytes and lymphocytes in patients with COVID-19 and Long-COVID. Importantly it proposes a new in vitro treatment modality of immune regulating cells that can help patients fight the lymphopaenia associated with COVID-19 and Long-COVID.


Pagination are not provided by the author/publisher

Publication (Name of Journal)

Reviews in medical virology