Enhancing patient safety through education in a low-to-middle-income country: Training in the correct application of cricoid pressure

Document Type





Background: Cricoid pressure (CP) is applied to occlude the esophagus during endotracheal intubation in patients at an increased risk of aspiration of gastric contents. Evidence shows marked deficiencies in knowledge and skills for CP application among personnel responsible for this task. This study evaluated the effectiveness of CP training in improving knowledge and skills regarding CP application among anesthesiology technicians and critical care nurses and assessed the retention of skills after 2 months.
Methods: Five workshops were conducted on effective application of CP. Indications, relevant anatomy, physiology, and correct technique were taught using interactive sessions and videos and hands-on practice on a weighing scale, 50-mL syringe, and trainer model. Pre- and postworkshop tests were conducted for knowledge and skill. An assessment was repeated after 2 months to assess skill retention.
Results: Five workshops were conducted for 102 participants. Statistically significant improvements were seen in mean scores for knowledge in postworkshop assessments (12.32 ± 2.12 versus 7.12 ± 2.32; P < .01). Similarly, posttraining mean scores for skill assessment were significantly higher than pretraining scores (6.31 ± 0.96 versus 2.72 ± 2.00; P < .0005), indicating an overall 131% improvement. Seventy-four participants appeared for assessment of the retention of skills. A 20% decrement was observed compared with posttraining scores (5.15 ± 1.71 versus 6.45 ± 0.86; P < .0005).
Conclusions: A significant improvement was observed in both knowledge and skills immediately following training. However, this does not ensure long-term retention of clinical skills, as a 20% decrement was observed 2 months after the workshops. Formal training and regular practice are recommended to enable clinicians to perform CP effectively.


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Publication (Name of Journal)

The Journal of Education in Perioperative Medicine