Document Type





Informed consent has become an essential element of human subject research. Certain components are essential for a well-understood informed consent. There are problems in procurement of a comprehensive and meaningful consent in the Pakistani research settings. The inefficient healthcare systems, low literacy rate with masses having no concept of individual rights, higher social status enjoyed by physicians inhibiting the patients from questioning them, and unwillingness to hear bad news are some of these factors. Establishing Bioethics education at all levels, encouraging the involvement of families in decision making, using improvisation in procurement of consent are suggested solutions. There needs to be a consideration for both beneficence and autonomy with emphasis on balancing and doing equal justice to both.

Publication (Name of Journal)

Journal of the Pakistan Medical Association