Document Type



Medical College Pakistan


In Pakistan perioperative transoesophageal echocardiography (TOE) during cardiac surgery is available in a few centers with reliance on cardiologists and cardiac technicians and its use in noncardiac surgery and intensive care units is very limited. In view of the increasing popularity of TOE based on obvious benefits this review is presented with an aim to evaluate the current indications and potential benefits of using TOE during anesthesia for cardiac and non-cardiac surgery and the intensive care units and compare TOE with pulmonary artery catheter (PAC) and transthoracic echocardiography (TTE) as an hemodynamic monitor in the acute care setting.

Publication (Name of Journal)

Anaesthesia, Pain & Intensive Care