Middle Eastern and North African Journalism
Graduate School of Media and Communications
Abstract: News organizations in the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) have traditionally been controlled by, or largely beholden to, the region's governments. That changed with the revolution in Arab journalism in the years leading up to the 2011 Arab Spring popular uprising. But a political counterrevolution soon put authoritarian forces back in charge, re‐imposing their grip on Arab journalism.
The International Encyclopedia of Journalism Studies
(2019). Middle Eastern and North African Journalism. The International Encyclopedia of Journalism Studies.
Available at: https://ecommons.aku.edu/eastafrica_gsmc/48