Document Type



School of Nursing and Midwifery, East Africa


Public health services in sub-Sahara Africa countries face severe health workforce shortages exacerbated by both outward migration and internal public to private sector migration—Tanzania is no exception. This review was conducted to characterize the extent of health workforce shortages in Tanzania, and the factors impacting on the shortage. The authors reviewed publicly available data to assess the extent of health workforce shortages within Tanzania and the range of ‘pull’ and ‘push’ factors contributing to the shortages. Findings highlight significant health workforce shortages in Tanzania. Pull factors, the advantages offered that 'pull' workers towards the new jobs and well as Push factors, those negative factors that push workers out of their jobs, such as poor pay, working conditions, and management and governance issues, were identified. The issue of health workforce flow from the public to private not-for-profit sector was particularly notable and the impact this has on the ability to provide an effectively functioning public health system in Tanzania. The authors conclude that opportunities exist for the private not-for-profit sector to take an active role in the production of skilled human resources for health in Tanzania.


This work was published before the author joined Aga Khan University.


Advances in Social Sciences Research Journal

Included in

Public Health Commons