Document Type



School of Nursing and Midwifery, East Africa


Background: Surgical site infection is a common healthcare-associated infection that affects maternal health, yet it can be prevented or controlled. Caesarian sections are most likely to develop surgical site infections. The rates of delivery by caesarian section in reported to be higher that the acceptable rates in some healthcare facilities. Risk factors for surgical site infections can be identified and modified to reduce the occurrence of surgical site infections. This study aims to determine the risk factors that contribute to surgical site infections post caesarian section in a tertiary teaching hospital in Kenya.

Methods: This was a retrospective case-control (1:2 matched) study conducted between 1st November 2021 to 31st October 2022 at a tertiary hospital in Nairobi. Data was extracted on surgical site risk factors as per World Health Organization’s recommended preoperative measures, for both cases and controls. Descriptive statistics was used to summarize the variables and the Chi-squared test and Fisher’s Exact test were used for group comparisons.

Results: A total of 1,262 caesarian deliveries were performed, 2.1% (27/1262) of which developed surgical site infections post caesarian section. The risk factors identified were not significantly associated with surgical site infection development (gestational age P¼0.152, body mass index P¼0.615, premature rupture of membranes P¼0.253, and antibiotic prophylaxis P¼0.108).

Conclusions: There was no significant association of exposure to surgical site infection risk factors with surgical site infection despite a positive trend. Other prospective methods should also be used in addition to chart reviews to determine the level of effect each risk factor has on surgical site infection.

Publication (Name of Journal)

Infection Prevention in Practice