Health service factors influencing uptake of cervical visual inspection with acetic acid in selected health facilities in Embu County, Kenya

Document Type



School of Nursing and Midwifery, East Africa


Background: Cervical cancer is the second most common cancer among females in developing countries. Despite widespread screening efforts for cancer of the cervix and training on VIA/VILLI, deaths due to cervical cancer remain high. This study aimed to determine Health Service Provider factors influencing the uptake of cervical cancer screening by VIA in selected health facilities in Embu County, Kenya.

Methodology: Data were collected from 14 healthcare providers who were the initial study respondents from 7 purposively selected health facilities. Data collection tools were self-administered questionnaires and structured interviews for key informants. Additional secondary data were obtained from the health facility records and KDHS 2014. For data analysis, both quantitative and qualitative techniques of analysis were applied.

Results: Lack of awareness creation on VIA, lack of skills to do VIA, lack of supplies for VIA, cost and fear of speculum examination by women were some factors leading to low uptake of cervical cancer screening.

Conclusions and Recommendations: Increasing awareness of VIA needs to be done such as through recruitment of male champions for cervical cancer screening to mobilize and participate in awareness campaigns. Moreover, there needs to be an increase in the number of health care providers trained in VIA and cryotherapy and creating a pool of trainers of other health service providers. Additionally, the provision of VIA supplies needs to be ensured and VIA services offered free of charge. MOH and county governments' departments of health should ensure support supervision at least once per quarter to the health care workers trained on VIA.

Publication (Name of Journal)

African Journal of Health Sciences