Document Type



School of Nursing and Midwifery, East Africa



Over the last decade, progress in reducing maternal mortality in Rwanda has been slow, from 210 deaths per 100,000 live births in 2015 to 203 deaths per 100,000 live births in 2020. Access to quality antenatal care (ANC) can substantially reduce maternal and newborn mortality. Several studies have investigated factors that influence the use of ANC, but information on its quality is limited. Therefore, this study aimed to identify the determinants of quality antenatal care among pregnant women in Rwanda using a nationally representative sample.


We analyzed secondary data of 6,302 women aged 15–49 years who had given birth five years prior the survey from the Rwanda Demographic and Health Survey (RDHS) of 2020 data. Multistage sampling was used to select RDHS participants. Good quality was considered as having utilized all the ANC components. Multivariable logistic regression was conducted to explore the associated factors using SPSS version 25.


Out of the 6,302 women, 825 (13.1%, 95% CI: 12.4–14.1) utilized all the ANC indicators of good quality ANC); 3,696 (60%, 95% CI: 58.6–61.1) initiated ANC within the first trimester, 2,975 (47.2%, 95% CI: 46.1–48.6) had 4 or more ANC contacts, 16 (0.3%, 95% CI: 0.1–0.4) had 8 or more ANC contacts. Exposure to newspapers/magazines at least once a week (aOR 1.48, 95% CI: 1.09–2.02), lower parity (para1: aOR 6.04, 95% CI: 3.82–9.57) and having been visited by a field worker (aOR 1.47, 95% CI: 1.23–1.76) were associated with more odds of receiving all ANC components. In addition, belonging to smaller households (aOR 1.34, 95% CI: 1.10–1.63), initiating ANC in the first trimester (aOR 1.45, 95% CI: 1.18–1.79) and having had 4 or more ANC contacts (aOR 1.52, 95% CI: 1.25–1.85) were associated with more odds of receiving all ANC components. Working women had lower odds of receiving all ANC components (aOR 0.79, 95% CI: 0.66–0.95).


The utilization of ANC components (13.1%) is low with components such as having at least two tetanus injections (33.6%) and receiving drugs for intestinal parasites (43%) being highly underutilized. Therefore, programs aimed at increasing utilization of ANC components need to prioritize high parity and working women residing in larger households. Promoting the use of field health workers, timely initiation and increased frequency of ANC might enhance the quality of care.

Publication (Name of Journal)

BMC Health Services Research

Creative Commons License

Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.