Document Type



School of Nursing and Midwifery, East Africa


Multilingual and multi-ethnic societies are becoming the norm in the era of globalisation. Given the cultural diversity and multiple languages spoken in many countries, healthcare researchers (including nurses) are challenged to use psychometrically sound research instruments that are culturally and linguistically sensitive. Most psychometrically sound research instruments have been developed and their properties assessed in English-speaking populations. A literature review was performed to understand the process of translation, use of qualitative and quantitative methods to assess the quality of translation, and lastly, to identify strategies to overcome the challenges of the translation process. One-way translation was observed to be the most utilised method. Translation methods and processes have many challenges, but applying relevant strategies could reduce errors and pitfalls.

Publication (Name of Journal)

Africa Journal of Nursing and Midwifery

Creative Commons License

Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial 3.0 License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial 3.0 License

Included in

Nursing Commons