Bacterial extracellular vesicles: Vital contributors to physiology from bacteria to host

Document Type



Pathology (East Africa)


Bacterial extracellular vesicles (bEVs) represent spherical particles with diameters ranging from 20 to 400 nm filled with multiple parental bacteria-derived components, including proteins, nucleic acids, lipids, and other biomolecules. The production of bEVs facilitates bacteria interacting with their environment and exerting biological functions. It is increasingly evident that the bEVs play integral roles in both bacterial and host physiology, contributing to environmental adaptations to functioning as health promoters for their hosts. This review highlights the current state of knowledge on the composition, biogenesis, and diversity of bEVs and the mechanisms by which different bEVs elicit effects on bacterial physiology and host health. We posit that an in-depth exploration of the mechanistic aspects of bEVs activity is essential to elucidate their health-promoting effects on the host and may facilitate the translation of bEVs into applications as novel natural biological nanomaterials.

Publication (Name of Journal)

Microbiological Research