Document Type



Pathology (East Africa)


Background: Urolithiasis is a global problem whose incidence is reported to be on the rise across the world. Previously, urolithiasis was reported as being rare among the indigenous African population but recent data suggest otherwise. This study reviewed the demographic and clinical characteristics of patients with urolithiasis seen at the Aga Khan University hospital Nairobi (AKUHN) as well as the chemical composition of the stones and the modalities of therapy used.

Methods: This was a retrospective study which utilized patients’ clinical and laboratory records from 2013 to 2014. Sixty-seven symptomatic patients with confrmed urolithiasis formed the study. This study aimed to describe the clinical characteristics of patients, modalities of treatment as well as the chemical composition of renal stones from patients diagnosed and managed for urolithiasis during a duration spanning 17 months. Wet chemistry was utilized for analyzing the chemical composition of the urinary calculi. Data on age, sex, symptoms, radiological investigations done, location of the calculi, chemical composition of calculi and therapeutic procedures instituted were extracted and analyzed.

Results: Ages ranged from 3 to 87 years with a median of 42; males were the majority (79%) and the commonest presenting symptoms were fank pain (91%) and dysuria (19%). The majority of the stones were located in the ureters (46%) and at the pelvi-ureteric junction (25%). A statistically signifcant diference in frequency of lodgment at the pelvi-ureteric site between males and females was noted. However, the number of female patients in this study was small and studies with larger numbers of female participants are required to confrm this observation. All stones contained calcium and oxalate, often as the only constituents (72%). In the remainder of the stones, other constituents such bicarbonate, ammonium, phosphorous, magnesium, uric acid and cystine occurred in varying combinations with calcium oxalate. Laser lithotripsy was the most performed therapeutic procedure (77.6%).

Conclusions: Males formed the majority of patient with urolithiasis. Overall, most of the calculi were located in the ureters except in women where the pelviureteric location was commoner. Stones containing calcium oxalate only were predominant across the age groups and in both sexes. Lithotripsy was the commonest mode of management

Publication (Name of Journal)

BMC Research Notes

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Pathology Commons