Esophageal atresia with tracheoesophageal fistula: two case reports

Document Type

Case Report


Paediatrics and Child Health (East Africa)



The incidence of esophageal atresia with tracheoesophageal fistula is 1 out of 3000–5000 live births. Its incidence in lower middle income countries is not known. The infants usually present with excessive secretions or choking while feeding and are at risk for aspiration. The outcome of these infants in lower middle income countries is not encouraging due to delays in referral, sepsis at presentation requiring preoperative stabilization, postoperative complications such as anastomosis leaks, pneumonia, and pneumothorax.

Case presentation

We present two African babies who were term infants at age 2 days (male) and 5 days (female) with diagnosis of esophageal atresia and tracheoesophageal fistula. The 5-day-old infant required preoperative stabili- zation due to sepsis and delayed surgery with a poor postoperative outcome. The 2-day-old infant was preoperatively stable and had a good postoperative outcome. The challenges faced in management of these two cases have been highlighted.


Outcome of infants with esophageal atresia and tracheoesophageal fistula in lower middle income countries is not encouraging due to delays in referral and poor postoperative healing attributed to sepsis and recur- rent pneumothorax. Timely referral, preoperative condition of the infant, and timely management has shown to be a contributory factor for an improved outcome.

Publication (Name of Journal)

Journal of Medical Case Reports



Creative Commons License

Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.