Prevalence of Seizures in Children Infected With Human Immunodeficiency Virus

Document Type



Medical College (East Africa)


A retrospective study of 354 human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)–infected patients identified a subgroup of 27 children with seizures (7.6%, 95% confidence interval: 5.1%-10.9%). Of the total group, 13% (n ¼ 46) had identifiable neurologic deficits and 30% (n ¼ 107) had developmental delay. Both observations were significantly more frequent in the subgroup of patients with seizures (P < .001). The median age of patients with seizures was 20 months (range, 8-87 months) and the median baseline CD4 percentage was 13.5% (interquartile range, 8%-23%). Seizures were treated with sodium valproate (n ¼ 11), phenobarbital (n ¼ 3), diazepam (n ¼ 2), lamotrigine (n ¼ 1), and carbamazepine (n ¼ 1). Combination therapy was required for 5 children. Suboptimal valproic acid levels were recorded for 3 patients. When resources are available, antiepileptic drug level monitoring is advised for children who require both antiepileptic and antiretroviral medications to facilitate optimal seizure management.


This work was published before the author joined Aga Khan University.

Publication (Name of Journal)

Journal of Child Neurology