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Paediatrics and Child Health (East Africa)


The 2017 International League Against Epilepsy classification has defined a three- tiersystem with epilepsy syndrome identification at the third level. Although a syndromecannot be determined in all children with epilepsy, identification of a specific syn-drome provides guidance on management and prognosis. In this paper, we describethe childhood onset epilepsy syndromes, most of which have both mandatory seizuretype(s) and interictal electroencephalographic (EEG) features. Based on the 2017Classification of Seizures and Epilepsies, some syndrome names have been updatedusing terms directly describing the seizure semiology. Epilepsy syndromes beginningin childhood have been divided into three categories: (1) self- limited focal epilepsies,comprising four syndromes: self- limited epilepsy with centrotemporal spikes, self-limited epilepsy with autonomic seizures, childhood occipital visual epilepsy, andphotosensitive occipital lobe epilepsy; (2) generalized epilepsies, comprising three syn-dromes: childhood absence epilepsy, epilepsy with myoclonic absence, and epilepsywith eyelid myoclonia; and (3) developmental and/or epileptic encephalopathies,comprising five syndromes: epilepsy with myoclonic– atonic seizures, Lennox– Gastautsyndrome, developmental and/or epileptic encephalopathy with spike- and- wave acti-vation in sleep, hemiconvulsion– hemiplegia– epilepsy syndrome, and febrile infection-related epilepsy syndrome. We define each, highlighting the mandatory seizure(s),EEG features, phenotypic variations, and findings from key investigations.

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Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

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