Document Type



Imaging and Diagnostic Radiology (East Africa)


The aim of this study was to determine the entrance surface air kerma (ESAK) in adult patients during digital radiography and to evaluate the optimisation potential in five common X-ray examinations in Tanzania. Based on a sample of 240–610 patients, ESAK was estimated using X-ray tube output measurements, patient information and backscatter factors. The results show that the mean ESAK values were higher or comparable to data from the literature. The diagnostic reference values of ESAK for digital radiography were 0.31 mGy (chest PA), 4 mGy (lumbar spine AP), 5.4 mGy (lumbar spine LAT), 3.8 mGy (abdomen AP) and 2.4 mGy (pelvis AP). For computed radiography, the mean ESAK ranges were 0.44–0.57 mGy (thoracic AP), 3.59–3.72 mGy (lumbar spine AP), 6.16–6.35 mGy (lumbar spine LAT), 3.89–3.44 mGy (abdominal AP) and 2.92–3.47 mGy (pelvic AP). In conclusion, high ESAK variations show the potential for optimising protection in digital radiology.

Publication (Name of Journal)

Radiation Protection Dosimetry,


Included in

Radiology Commons