Valerie A. McCormacka, International Agency for Research on Cancer
Anya Burton, International Agency for Research on Cancer
Isabel dos-Santos-Silva, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine
John H. Hipwell, University College London
Caroline Dickens, University of the Witwatersrand
Dorria Salem, Cairo University
Rasha Kama, Cairo University Hospitals
Mikael Hartman, National University of Singapore
Charmaine Pei Ling Lee, National University of Singapore
Kee-Seng Chia, National University of Singapore
Vahit Ozmen, Istanbul University
Mustafa Erkin Aribal, Istanbul University
Anath Arzee Flugelman, National Cancer Control Center, Israel
Martín Lajous, Chan School of Public Health
Ruy Lopez-Riduara, Instituto Nacional de Salud Pública
Megan Rice, Brigham and Women’s Hospital
Isabelle Romieu, International Agency for Research on Cancer
Giske Ursin, Cancer Registry of Norway
Samera Qureshi, Norwegian Center for Minority Health Research
Huiyan Ma, Beckman Research Institute
Eunjung Lee, University of Southern California
Carla H. van Gils, University Medical Center Utrecht
Johanna O.P. Wanders, University Medical Center Utrecht
Sudhir Vinayak, Aga Khan UniversityFollow
Rose Ndumia, Aga Khan UniversityFollow
Steve Allen, Royal Marsden NHS Foundation Trust
Sarah Vinnicombe, Ninewells Hospital & Medical School
Sue Moss, Queen Mary University of London
Jong Won Lee, Asan Medical Center
Jisun Kim, Asan Medical Center
Ana Pereira, University of Chile
Maria Luisa Garmendia, University of Chile
Reza Sirous, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences
Mehri Sirous, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences
Beata Peplonska, Nofer Institute of Occupational Medicine
Agnieszka Bukowska, Nofer Institute of Occupational Medicine
Rulla M. Tamimi, Harvard Medical School
Kimberly Bertrand, Boston University
Chisato Nagata, Gifu University
Ava Kwong, The University of Hong Kong
Celine Vachon, Mayo Clinic, Rochester
Christopher Scott, Mayo Clinic, Rochester
Beatriz Perez-Gomez, Instituto de Salud Carlos III and CIBERESP
Marina Pollan, Instituto de Salud Carlos III and CIBERESP
Gertraud Maskarinec, University of Hawaii Cancer Center
Graham Giles, Istanbul University
John Hopper, I Cancer Epidemiology Centre
Jennifer Stone, University of Western Australia
Nadia Rajaram, University Malaya
Soo-Hwang Teo, University Malaya
Shivaani Mariapun, University Malaya
Martin J. Yaffe, University of Toronto
Joachim Schüz, International Agency for Research on Cancer
Anna M. Chiarelli, Cancer Care Ontario
Linda Linton, Princess Margaret Cancer Centre
Norman F. Boyd, Princess Margaret Cancer Centre

Document Type



Imaging and Diagnostic Radiology (East Africa)


Mammographic density (MD) is a quantitative trait, measurable in all women, and is among the strongest markers of breast cancer risk. The population-based epidemiology of MD has revealed genetic, lifestyle and societal/environmental determinants, but studies have largely been conducted in women with similar westernized lifestyles living in countries with high breast cancer incidence rates. To benefit from the heterogeneity in risk factors and their combinations worldwide, we created an International Consortium on Mammographic Density (ICMD) to pool individual-level epidemiological and MD data from general population studies worldwide. ICMD aims to characterize determinants of MD more precisely, and to evaluate whether they are consistent across populations worldwide. We included 11755 women, from 27 studies in 22 countries, on whom individual-level risk factor data were pooled and original mammographic images were re-read for ICMD to obtain standardized comparable MD data. In the present article, we present (i) the rationale for this consortium; (ii) characteristics of the studies and women included; and (iii) study methodology to obtain comparable MD data from original re-read films. We also highlightthe risk factor heterogeneity captured by such an effort and, thus,the unique insightthe pooled study promises to offer through wider exposure ranges, different confounding structures and enhanced power for sub-group analyses.


Cancer Epidemiology

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