Document Type



Haematology and Oncology, East Africa


Less than 1% of all clinical trials are conducted in Africa. In 2019, only six of 26 oncology clinical trials conducted in Africa were conducted in countries with subjects of African ancestry. There are multiple barriers that hinder the conduct of cancer clinical trials in Africa. Time to trial activation (TTA) is the administrative and regulatory process required before a study can be activated—an important metric and often a major barrier for site selection. In Kenya, TTA involves review by Institutional Review Board (IRB), Pharmacy and Poisons Board, National Commission for Science, Technology and Innovation and Ministry of Health, all in a sequential fashion. We performed a prospective review of TTA for all clinical trials initiated and began enrolment at the Aga Khan University-Clinical Research Unit between June 2020 and November 2022. TTA was defined as total time from submission of study documents (to regulatory bodies) to site activation by the sponsor. A total of 12 studies were submitted for regulatory review. Eleven (nine industry sponsored and two investigator initiated) were approved for activation. Three were COVID-19-related studies and eight were non-COVID-19-related studies. Mean TTA for COVID-related studies was 80 days (range 40–120). Mean TTA for non-COVID-related studies was 259 days (range 190–399). This TTA difference was statistically significant (p=0.02). TTA remains a significant barrier to the efficient regulatory approval of and subsequent conduct of clinical trials in Africa. COVID-19 pandemic revealed that parallel processing and expedited review of clinical trials allows efficient TTA without compromising human subject safety or data integrity. These lessons need to be applied to all clinical trials in order for African sites to become competitive and contribute data from African patients to global knowledge.

Publication (Name of Journal)

BMJ Global Health



Creative Commons License

Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.