Document Type



General Surgery (East Africa)


Objectives: Advanced breast cancer (ABC) is an incurable disease. The number of people living with ABC has increased globally. Disparities in ABC care exist at both individual and system levels. ABC cases in most low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) are underreported due to a lack of national cancer registries. Harmonized guidelines for resource stratification and capacity building in LMICs are under way.

Data sources: MEDLINE, Cochrane, and Google Scholar databases were used.

Conclusion: To improve ABC outcomes and resolve disparities, more robust health systems or pathways need to be developed across the cancer continuum in addition to social education.

Implications for nursing practice: So far, the ABC specialist nurse role has been variable globally, and to conquer such variability, an international online nurse education and training program is in practice.

Publication (Name of Journal)

Seminars in Oncology Nursing


Creative Commons License

Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

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Surgery Commons