Comparison of Neuropsychological Patterns in Nigerians with different Heart Failure Phenotypes

Document Type



Internal Medicine (East Africa)


Objective The aim of this study was to determine the influence of left ventricular dysfunction type on the pattern of neuropsychological dysfunctions among heart failure (HF) subjects.

Method A sub-analysis of the data of subjects recruited in a cross-sectional survey of cognitive dysfunction among Nigerians with HF was performed. Cognitive performance on the Community Screening Interview for Dementia (CSI'D), Word List Learning Delayed Recall (WLLDR), Boston Naming Test (BNT), and Modified Token Test (MTT) were compared between heart failure with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF) and heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF). Clinical and echocardiographic correlation analysis with cognitive performance was performed.

Results Subjects with HFpEF were impaired on the WLLDR (71.4% vs. 34.6%, p = .026). The group with HFpEF scored lower on the language domain (definition subscale) of CSI'D (p = .036), and WLLDR (p = .005). The performance on the MTT (p = .185) and BNT (p = .923) were comparable between the two groups. An inverse relationship was found between pulse pressure and delay recall (r = −.565 p = .003) among the cohort with HFpEF whereas body mass index, BMI (r = −.737, p = .023) and tricuspid valve E/A ratio, TVEA (r = −.650, p = .042) showed an inverse relationship with the total CSI'D score in the cohort with HFrEF.

Conclusions Cognitive dysfunction is largely similar between the two groups. Delay recall is however poorer among subjects with HFpEF. Regular cognitive screening is advocated among HF subjects to prevent non-adherence with therapeutic options.


This work was published before the author joined Aga Khan University.


Archives of Clinical Neuropsychology