Evaluation of venous thromboembolism (VTE) risk assessment and thrombo-prophylaxis practices in hospitalized medical and surgical patients at Aga Khan Hospital Dar es Salaam: single-centre retrospective study

Document Type



General Surgery (East Africa)



venous thromboembolism is a complication among admitted medical and surgical patients. International guidelines recommend patients are assessed upon admission and appropriate thromboprophylaxis should be initiated. However, studies have shown that thromboprophylaxis for patients at risk of venous thromboembolism is underutilized.


this was a retrospective study conducted on hospitalized medical and surgical patients at Aga Khan Hospital Dar es salaam from January 2019 to June 2019.Patient ́s medical records were reviewed and data was collected for analysis of venous thromboembolism assessment and compliance with Caprini risk assessment model. The data was entered into statistical package for the social sciences (SPSS) 25 and categorized into risk groups, frequency of patients' demographic and clinical characteristics data was calculated and the main study outcomes were analyzed with Fisher ́s exact test or Pearson chi-square test for categorical variables and student t-test for continuous variables. Regression analyses were done to identify significant risk factors where by P ≤ 0.05 was considered statistically significant.


compliance of venous thromboembolism assessment among medical and surgical patients was similar at 78% and 80%, respectively, with a baseline 22% of all admitted patients considered at risk of venous thromboembolism, hence needing thromboprophylaxis following the Caprini risk assessment modelscore. Thromboprophylaxis practices was identified at just 25% of at-risk individuals received pharmacological prophylaxis with enoxaparin; the most commonly used agent (92%). Identified risk factors for venous thromboembolism were advancing age (>60 years), history of prior major surgery, Major surgery lasting > 60 minutes, obesity, and immobilization.


risk assessment for venous thromboembolism should be emphasized upon admission of both surgical and medical patients. Adequate thromboprophylaxis should be prescribed upon identification of patients at risk.

Publication ( Name of Journal)

Pan African Medical Journal

Creative Commons License

Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.