Factors Associated with Mortality Among Hospitalized Adults with COVID-19 Pneumonia at a Private Tertiary Hospital in Tanzania: A Retrospective Cohort Study

Nadeem Kassam, Aga Khan University, Medical College, Tanzania.
Eric Aghan, Aga Khan University
Omar Aziz, Aga Khan University, Medical College, Tanzania.
Hanifa Mbithe, Aga Khan University
Kamran Hamid, Aga Khan University
Reena Shah, Aga Khan University
Salim Surani, Texas A&M College Station, USA.
James Orwa, Aga Khan University
Samina Somji, Aga Khan University



The emergence of the novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has caused millions of deaths worldwide. There has been paucity of data for hospitalized African patients suffering from COVID-19. This study aimed to identify factors associated with in-hospital mortality in patients suffering from COVID-19 in Tanzania.


This was a single center, retrospective, observational cohort study in adult patients hospitalized with confirmed COVID-19 infection. Demographics, clinical pattern, laboratory and radiological investigations associated with increased odds of mortality were analyzed.


Of the 157 patients, 107 (68.1%) patients survived and 50 (31.8%) died. Mortality was highest in patients suffering with severe (26%) and critical (68%) forms of the disease. The median age of the cohort was 52 years (IQR 42–61), majority of patients were male (86%) and of African origin (46%), who presented with fever (69%), cough (62%) and difficulty in breathing (43%). Factors that were associated with mortality among our cohort were advanced age (OR 1.07, 95% CI 1.03–1.11), being overweight and obese (OR 9.44, 95% CI 2.71–41.0), suffering with severe form of the disease (OR 4.77, 95% CI 1.18–25.0) and being admitted to the HDU and ICU (OR 6.68, 95% CI 2.06–24.6).


The overall in-hospital mortality was 31.8%. Older age, obesity, the severe form of the disease and admission to the ICU and HDU were major risk factors associated with in-hospital mortality.