Document Type



School of Nursing and Midwifery, Pakistan; Family Medicine; Centre of Excellence in Women and Child Health; Community Health Sciences


Study objectives: We aimed to estimate the prevalence of intimate partner violence (IPV) and associated risk factors in married women in rural villages of Gilgit Baltistan in Pakistan.
Methods: A cross-sectional design to assess the magnitude and factors associated with IPV in a random sample of 789 married women aged 18-49 years. A World Health Organization screening instrument was used to assess the presence of IPV in the previous 12 months. A locally validated instrument was adopted to identify self-reported symptoms of major depression according to the DSM IV. Trained nurses obtained socio-demographic and reproductive history through structured interviews. Bivariate and multivariable logistic regression analyses were used to estimate prevalence and identify significant predictors of IPV.
Results: The mean age of the participants was 38.3 years (SD: ±12.8). The prevalence of IPV in women was 22.8% (95% Confidence Interval: 20.0-25.9), 18.5% in pregnant women (95% CI: 11.7-27.9) and significantly associated with depression in 55.1% of IPV cases. Husband education level (college/higher) (Adjusted Odds Ratio: 0.40; 95%CI: 0.22-0.70) and high household income (AOR: 0.44; 95% CI: 0.29-0.68) were protective against IPV. Increase in age (AOR;1.02; 95% CI: 1.01-1.02) and poor relationship with mother-in-law increased the risk of IPV (AOR = 2.85; 95% CI: 1.90-4.28). IPV was positively associated with symptoms of depression (AOR = 1.97; 95% CI:1.39-2.77), poor perceived quality of life (AOR = 3.54; 95% CI: 1.90-6.58) and poor health (AOR = 2.74; 95% CI: 1.92-3.92).
Conclusion: IPV is substantial public health burden significantly associated with depressive symptoms, poor perceived health and the quality of life.


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Publication (Name of Journal)

PLoS One

Creative Commons License

Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.