NAUNEHAL; Integrated immunization and MNCH interventions: A quasi-experimental study-Protocol

Document Type



Centre of Excellence in Women and Child Health


Introduction: Great improvements in the health of newborns, children, and women in Pakistan are needed. A large body of literature has demonstrated that the majority of maternal, newborn, and child deaths are preventable with essential health strategies including immunization, nutrition interventions, and child health interventions. Despite the importance of these interventions for the health of women and children, access to services continues to be a barrier. Furthermore, demand for services also contributes to low coverage of essential health interventions. Given the emerging threat of COVID-19 coupled with already weak maternal and child health, delivering effective and feasible nutrition and immunization services to communities, and increasing demand and uptake of services is a pressing and important need.
Methods and analysis: This quasi-experimental study aims to improve health service delivery and increase uptake. The study included four main intervention strategies including community mobilization, mobile health teams offering MNCH and immunization services, engagement of the private sector, and testing of a comprehensive health, nutrition, growth, and immunization app, Sehat Nishani, for a period of 12 months. The target group of the project were women of reproductive age (15-49 years) and children under-five. The project was implemented in three union councils (UCs) in Pakistan including Kharotabad-1(Quetta District, Balochistan), Bhana Mari (Peshawar District, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa) and Bakhmal Ahmedzai (Lakki Marwat district, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa). Propensity score matching based on size, location, health facilities, and key health indicators of UC was conducted to identify three matched UCs. A household baseline, midline, endline and close-out assessment will be conducted for evaluating coverage of interventions as well as the knowledge, attitude, and practices of the community in the MNCH and COVID-19 context. Descriptive and inferential statistics will be used to test hypotheses. As well, a detailed cost-effectiveness analysis will be conducted to generate costing data for these interventions to effectively inform policymakers and stakeholder on feasibility of the model. Trial registration: NCT05135637


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Publication (Name of Journal)

PLoS One