Document Type



Paediatrics and Child Health; Centre of Excellence in Women and Child Health


There is a need for reliable and valid screening tools that assess depressive symptoms in adolescents in Pakistan. To address this need, the present study examined the psychometric properties and factor structure of a Sindhi-translated and adapted version of the child-report Mood and Feelings Questionnaire (MFQ-C) and the Short Mood and Feelings Questionnaire (SMFQ-C) in a community sample of adolescents living in Matiari, Pakistan. Questionnaires were translated into Sindhi and administered by study psychologists to 1350 participants (52.3% female) 9.0 to 15.9 years old. Measurement structure was examined using confirmatory factor analysis. Internal consistency was estimated, and convergent and divergent validity were explored using subscales from the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire and the Screen for Child Anxiety Related Emotional Disorders. The unidimensional structure of the MFQ-C was found to be adequate, but a four-factor structure comprising core mood, vegetative, cognitive and agitated distress symptoms best fit the data (CFI = 0.97, TLI = 0.97, RMSEA = 0.05). The original unidimensional structure of the SMFQ-C was supported (CFI = 0.97, TLI = 0.96, RMSEA = 0.07). The MFQ-C and the SMFQ-C respectively showed excellent (α = 0.92) and good internal consistency (α = 0.87) as well as satisfactory construct validity with some differences observed across the MFQ-C subscales. The SMFQ-C and the adapted MFQ-C appear to be reliable and valid measures of depressive symptoms among early adolescents living in rural Pakistan. Both total and subscale scores can be derived from the MFQ-C to assess general and specific dimensions of depressive symptoms in this population.


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PLOS Global Public Health