Document Type



Obstetrics and Gynaecology; Centre of Excellence in Women and Child Health


Objective: To examine the prevalence and predictors of family planning (FP) know-do gaps among married women of reproductive age (MWRA) in low socio-economic urban areas of Karachi, Pakistan.
Design: This was a cross-sectional survey of randomly selected 7288 MWRA (16-49 years) to identify predictors of the know-do gap in FP using a logistic regression model.
Results: More than one third (35.5%) of MWRA had FP know-do gap, i.e., despite having a knowledge of contraceptives and desire to limit or delay childbearing, they were not using contraceptives. Women were less likely to use FP if they were getting older (25-35 years: OR 1.45, 95% CI 1.09-1.94; >35 years: OR 3.02, 95% CI 1.90-4.80), from certain ethnicities (Sindhi: OR 1.64, 95% CI 1.11-2.42; Saraiki: OR 1.66, 95% CI 1.01-2.71; other minorities: OR 2.37, 95% CI 1.63-3.44); did not receive FP counselling: OR 1.43, 95% CI 1.13-1.80; and had not made a joint decision on FP: OR 1.44, 95% CI 1.06-1.98). Conversely, women were more likely to use contraceptives if they had >10 years of schooling (OR 0.66, 95% CI 0.46-0.94), with each increasing number of a living child (OR 0.68, 95% CI 0.62-0.75) and each increasing number of contraceptive method known (OR 0.93, 95% CI 0.88-0.98).
Conclusion: The predictors associated with the FP know-do gap among MWRA should be considered when planning future strategies to improve the contraceptive prevalence rate in Pakistan.

Publication ( Name of Journal)

Public Health Action

Creative Commons License

Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.