Document Type



Brain and Mind Institute


INTRODUCTION Brain-derived extracellular vesicles (BEVs) in blood allows for minimally-invasive investigations of central nervous system (CNS) -specific markers of age-related neurodegenerative diseases (NDDs). Polymer-based EV- and immunoprecipitation (IP)-based BEV-enrichment protocols from blood have gained popularity. We systematically investigated protocol consistency across studies, and determined CNS-specificity of proteins associated with these protocols.

METHODS NDD articles investigating BEVs in blood using polymer-based and/or IP-based BEV enrichment protocols were systematically identified, and protocols compared. Proteins used for BEV-enrichment and/or post-enrichment were assessed for CNS- and brain-cell-type-specificity, extracellular domains (ECD+), and presence in EV-databases.

RESULTS A total of 82.1% of studies used polymer-based (ExoQuick) EV-enrichment, and 92.3% used L1CAM for IP-based BEV-enrichment. Centrifugation times differed across studies. A total of 26.8% of 82 proteins systematically identified were CNS-specific: 50% ECD+, 77.3% were listed in EV-databases.

CONCLUSIONS We identified protocol steps requiring standardization, and recommend additional CNS-specific proteins that can be used for BEV-enrichment or as BEV-biomarkers.

Publication (Name of Journal)

Alzheimer's and Dementia


Included in

Neurosciences Commons