Individual-, interpersonal- and institutional-level factors associated with HIV stigma among youth in Kenya

Document Type



Brain and Mind Institute


Abstract: HIV stigma remains a barrier in achieving optimal HIV treatment. We studied the prevalence and predictors of HIV stigma among adolescents and youth with HIV (AYWHIV) ages 15–24 years in Western Kenya. Of 1011 AYWHIV, 69% were female with a median age of 18 years. Most (59%) attended adolescent clinic days, and 40% attended support groups. Onequarter (27%) had experienced physical, 18% emotional, and 7% sexual violence. The majority of AYWHIV (88%) reported disclosure concerns, 48% reported perceived community stigma, 36% experienced, and 24% internalized stigma. Compared to AYWHIV attending adolescent clinics, those in general/adult clinics had higher internalized stigma. Similarly, having dropped out of school was associated with higher internalized stigma. AYWHIV in sexual relationships had higher experienced stigma and disclosure concerns. Lastly, exposure to violence was associated with higher experienced, internalized, perceived community stigma and disclosure concerns. These risk factors can be targeted when developing stigma-prevention interventions.

Publication (Name of Journal)


Creative Commons License

Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.