Document Type



Brain and Mind Institute; Institute for Human Development


Introduction Culturally validated neurocognitive measures for children in Low‐ and Middle‐Income Countries are important in the timely and correct identification of neurocognitive impairments. Such measures can inform develop‐ ment of interventions for children exposed to additional vulnerabilities like HIV infection. The Battery for Neuropsy‐ chological Evaluation of Children (BENCI) is an openly available, computerized neuropsychological battery specifically developed to evaluate neurocognitive impairment. This study adapted the BENCI and evaluated its reliability and validity in Kenya.

Methodology The BENCI was adapted using translation and back‐translation from Spanish to English. The psy‐ chometric properties were evaluated in a case–control study of 328 children (aged 6 – 14 years) living with HIV and 260 children not living with HIV in Kenya. We assessed reliability, factor structure, and measurement invariance with respect to HIV. Additionally, we examined convergent validity of the BENCI using tests from the Kilifi Toolkit.

Results Internal consistencies (0.49 < α < 0.97) and test–retest reliabilities (‐.34 to .81) were sufficient‐to‐good for most of the subtests. Convergent validity was supported by significant correlations between the BENCI’s Verbal memory and Kilifi’s Verbal List Learning (r = .41), the BENCI’s Visual memory and Kilifi’s Verbal List Learning (r = .32) and the BEN‐ CI’s Planning total time test and Kilifi’s Tower Test (r = ‐.21) and the BENCI’s Abstract Reasoning test and Kilifi’s Raven’s Progressive Matrix (r = .21). The BENCI subtests highlighted meaningful differences between children living with HIV and those not living with HIV. After some minor adaptions, a confirmatory four‐factor model consisting of flexibility, fluency, reasoning and working memory fitted well (χ2 = 135.57, DF = 51, N = 604, p < .001, RMSEA = .052, CFI = .944, TLI = .914) and was partially scalar invariant between HIV positive and negative groups.

Conclusion The English version of the BENCI formally translated for use in Kenya can be further adapted and integrated in clinical and research settings as a valid and reliable cognitive test battery.

Publication (Name of Journal)

BMC Psychiatry

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Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

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