Nutritional factors associated with maternal depression among pregnant women in Urban Low-Income Settlements in Nairobi, Kenya
Brain and Mind Institute
Abstract: Background: Nutritional deficiencies are common during pregnancy and a year after childbirth. At the same time, maternal depression affects many women during pregnancy up to 1 year after childbirth. The objectives of this study were to determine the associations between nutrition status, dietary intake, and maternal depression among pregnant women.
Methods: This was a cross-sectional study that included 262 pregnant women aged 15 to 49 years attending the antenatal clinic in 2 public health facilities in urban low-income settlements in Nairobi, Kenya. Maternal depression was assessed using Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS). Mid-upper arm circumference (MUAC) was used to determine nutritional status. Dietary intake was assessed using the 24-hour recall, and brain essential nutrients were assessed through a questionnaire. Odds ratio was used to test the associations. All maternal characteristics with P < .001 in the univariable analysis were considered in the multivariable logistic regression, variables with P < .05 were considered significant.
Results: Of the 262 pregnant women, 33.6% (95% CI: 27.9-40.7) had depressive illness as indicated by EPDS >13. About 9.9% of pregnant women had MUAC < 23 cm. The study established statistically significant association between poor nutrition by MUAC and maternal depression (P < .001). Maternal depression was statistically significantly associated with inadequate intake of brain food essential (P = .002). Maternal depression was statistically significantly associated with lower income (P < .001). In multivariable regression analysis, the main predictor of maternal depression was poor nutrition (P < .004).
Conclusion: These findings reveal an association between poor nutrition and maternal depression. These results suggest that nutritional deficiencies could be a contributing factor for maternal depression. Study recommends dietary interventions as cost-effective way to reduce deficiencies and improve mental health problems for pregnant women. Assessment of maternal depression and dietary intake be integrated as fundamental components of antenatal care.
Publication ( Name of Journal)
Food and Nutrition Bulletin
Madeghe, B. A.,
(2021). Nutritional factors associated with maternal depression among pregnant women in Urban Low-Income Settlements in Nairobi, Kenya. Food and Nutrition Bulletin, 42(3), 334-346.
Available at: https://ecommons.aku.edu/bmi/339