Four clinical concepts: a template for cognitive integration of clinical and basic sciences

Document Type



Brain and Mind Institute


Four clinical concepts symptoms, diagnosis, causes, and treatment(s) comprised an easily implementable organizing framework for both individual basic science lectures and for an “integration session” that incorporated clinical and discipline-based foundational sciences. According to most students (>80 %) surveyed, this approach facilitated a novel and more meaningful appreciation of basic science in a clinical context, and most (78 %) said they intended to apply this organizing framework in their future learning. Given the enthusiasm of our students for this approach, we intend to organize more sessions around this template with a more rigorous quantitative assessment of our template for fostering cognitive integration.


This work was published before the author joined Aga Khan University.

Publication (Name of Journal)

Medical Science Educator