Document Type



Brain and Mind Institute


Abstract: Purpose To fnd out what is known from literature about Long COVID until January 30, 2021. Methods We undertook a four-step search with no language restriction. A preliminary search was made to identify the keywords. A search strategy of all electronic databases resulted in 66 eligible studies. A forward and backward search of the references and citations resulted in additional 54 publications. Non-English language articles were translated using Google Translate. We conducted our scoping review based on the PRISMA-ScR Checklist. Results Of 120 papers, we found only one randomized clinical trial. Of the 67 original studies, 22 were cohort, and 28 were cross-sectional studies. Of the total 120 publications, 49.1% focused on signs and symptoms, 23.3% on management, and 10.8% on pathophysiology. Ten publications focused on imaging studies. The results are also presented extensively in a narrative synthesis in separated sections (nomenclature, diagnosis, pathophysiology, risk factors, signs/symptoms, management). Conclusions The controversies in its defnition have impaired proper recognition and management. The predominant symptoms were: fatigue, breathlessness, arthralgia, sleep difculties, and chest pain. Recent reports also point to the risk of longterm sequela with cutaneous, respiratory, cardiovascular, musculoskeletal, mental health, neurologic, and renal involvement in those who survive the acute phase of the illness.


This work was published before the author joined Aga Khan University.