AKU Auditorium

Start Date

26-2-2014 12:45 PM


Background: Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is associated with substantial morbidity and mortality, and is increasingly being recognized as one of the major public health problems globally. However, information on the prevalence and determinants of CKD in the developing countries especially the South Asian region is lacking. The objectives of the study were to determine the prevalence of CKD, and evaluate the socio-demographic and clinical factors associated with CKD.

Methods: Population based cross-sectional study was conducted in 12 randomly selected low- and middle-income communities in Karachi. CKD was defined as estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) <60 mL/min/1.73 m2 estimated by CKD-EPIPK (CKD-EPI with Pakistani correction factor, 0.686 × CKD-EPI1.059) or urinary albumin to creatinine ratio ≥30.0 mg/g. The candidate socio-demographic and clinical predictors were age, sex, education, tobacco use, physical activity, body mass index, hypertension, diabetes, systolic and diastolic BP, fasting plasma glucose, serum triglycerides, low density lipoprotein cholesterol, high density lipoprotein cholesterol, total cholesterol, history of coronary artery disease and history of stroke respectively.

Results: A total of 2873 adults aged ≥40 years (48% men) were screened. The prevalence (95% CI) of CKD was 12.5% (11.3 – 13.8). The final multivariable models include older age, hypertension, diabetes, raised systolic BP, raised fasting glucose and raised triglycerides. About 74% patients also had hypertension and of these, only <20% had had their BP control ≤140/90.

Conclusions: CKD is common among Pakistani adults and BP control among these patients is grossly sub-optimal. These socio-demographic and clinical factors associated with CKD highlight the need for integration of CKD prevention efforts along with other non-communicable diseases in Pakistan.


Feb 26th, 12:45 PM Feb 26th, 12:55 PM

CKD in Pakistan - Socio-demographic and Clinical Determinants

AKU Auditorium