Presenter Information

Khalida Iqbal, Aga Khan University


Lecture Hall-3

Start Date

27-2-2014 3:45 PM


Background & Objective: Insufficiency of vitamin D is a global health problem, especially in developing countries of South Asia. In Pakistan, it varies from 69-90% in various study populations. Studies carried out in the West, have shown association of certain socio-demographic factors with vitamin D deficiency/insufficiency. Very few studies has been carried out to investigate the relationship of socio-demographic factors with hypovitaminosis D [25(OH) vitamin D levels < 20 ng/ml] in this region. Therefore, we embarked on investigating the relationship of socio-demographic factors with vitamin D levels in a hospital-based population of patients with diabetes mellitus and age-matched healthy controls.

Methods: We recruited 111 adult patients with diabetes mellitus (age range 22-70 years); 75 males and 46 females from the Endocrinology Clinics of the Aga Khan University Hospital with informed consent. Additionally, 116 age-matched (within 5 years) healthy controls were also recruited from the personnel of the Aga Khan University and other health-care institutions in Karachi. Demographic characteristics of the two groups were determined using a questionnaire. Serum levels of 25(OH) vitamin D were determined using kit methods.

Results: Vitamin D deficiency was found to be 63.0% in this cohort. Mean 25(OH) vitamin D levels in monthly household-income groups less than Rs. 10000, Rs. 10000-20,000, Rs. 20,001-50,000 and above Rs. 50,000 were found to be 9.66±5.6, 16.4±14.9, 18.4±15.4 and 20.4±12.9 ng/ml, respectively. Using logistic regression and adjustment with body mass index, the odds of increase in vitamin D levels in individuals with household income greater than Rs 50,000 per month, was 1.023 (95% CI, 1.002 – 1.044) compared to the odds of increase amongst individuals with household income less than Rs 50,000 per month.

Conclusion: There is an association between household income and vitamin D levels in a hospital-based Pakistani population.

Keywords: Diabetes mellitus, household income, sociodemographic factors, hypovitaminosis D


Feb 27th, 3:45 PM Feb 27th, 3:55 PM

Relationship of Socio-Demographic Factors with Serum Levels of Vitamin D in a Pakistani Population of Diabetic Patients and Healthy Controls

Lecture Hall-3