Institute for Educational Development, Karachi
Since its independence, Pakistan has launched a series of education reforms, which are either related to curriculum development or teacher education, but no effort has yet been made to address the issues relating to recognition of headteachers' role within the framework of educational management development (Memon, et aI. 1999). However currently the government of Pakistan seems to be cognizant of the importance of professional development of headteachers and others who are responsible for improving the quality of education in schools (Government of Pakistan, 1998). Literature in the area of educational management suggests that schools cannot function effectively without the dynamic leadership of headteachers who eventually provide leadership and vision to their staff. In Pakistan the majority of headteachers tend to perform as 'bureaucratic leaders' (Sergiovanni, 1998) or 'transmission leaders' (Memon, 1998) who either simply respond to the demands of the system or education reform. This addresses the issue of the moral and ethical values and obligations that headteachers face while work ing in their schools. Research in the area of educational management reveals that schools do not work in a vacuum but are highly influenced by the social context of surrounding communities (Goldring & Rallis, 1993). Therefore, social context has a significant impact on a school's academic policies and plans. This requires schools to meet the changing needs of communities. Schools are no longer there just to impart literacy and numeracy but they are responsible for the holistic development of the child. This can only be possible if the school headteachers consider themselves as 'pedagogical leaders' (Sergiovanni, 1998) who should value and recognize the needs and demands of the society. In the late 808, a major emphasis was placed on Headteachers' role as 'instructional leaders' because of the changing needs of the society. This was later superseded by 'transformational leadership' (Leithwood & Jantzi, 1990) and this has now been further superseded by 'pedagogical leadership'. It "invests in capacity building by developing social and academic capital for students and intellectual and professional capital for teachers" (Serglovanni, 1998, p. 37). In order to develop headteachers as pedagogical leaders, the Aga Khan University, institute for Educational Development, Karachi launched a one-year field-based modular Advanced Diploma in School Management (ADISM) programme in June 1997. The impact of this programme seems to have implications for policy reforms in the area of educational management in Pakistan.
(1999). Reconceptualizing the role of headteachers as pedagogical leaders in Pakistan: Implications for policy reforms. Education 2000, 3(12), 6-10.
Available at: http://ecommons.aku.edu/pakistan_ied_pdck/33