Placenta percreta with bladder invasion as a cause of life threatening hemorrhage.
Abnormal placental penetration through the myometrium with bladder invasion is a rare obstetric complication with potential for massive blood loss. Urologists are usually consulted after a life threatening emergency has already arisen. Their familiarity with this condition is crucial for effective management. We describe 2 cases of placenta percreta with bladder invasion to highlight the catastrophic nature of this clinical entity, and review the literature on current diagnostic and management strategies.
MATERIALS AND METHODS:
Between 1986 and 1998, 250 cases of adherent placenta (0.9%) were identified in 25,254 births at our institution, including 2 (0.008%) of placenta percreta with bladder invasion. We treated these 2 multiparous women who were 33 and 30 years old, respectively. Each had undergone 2 previous cesarean sections.
Presenting symptoms were severe hematuria in 1 patient and prepartum hemorrhage with shock in the other. Ultrasound showed complete placenta previa in each with evidence of bladder invasion in 1 patient. Hysterectomy, bladder wall resection and repair, and bilateral internal iliac artery ligation were required to control massive intraoperative hemorrhage. The patients received 22 and 15 units of packed red blood cells, respectively. Fetal death occurred in each case. Convalescence was complicated by disseminated intravascular coagulation in patient 1 but subsequent recovery was uneventful.
A high index of suspicion for placenta percreta with bladder invasion is required when evaluating pregnant women with a history of cesarean delivery and placenta previa who present with hematuria and lower urinary tract symptoms. Ultrasonography and magnetic resonance imaging may assist in establishing the diagnosis preoperatively. With proper planning and a multidisciplinary approach fetal and maternal morbidity and mortality may be decreased.
The Journal of Urology
(2000). Placenta percreta with bladder invasion as a cause of life threatening hemorrhage.. The Journal of Urology, 164(4), 1270-1274.
Available at: http://ecommons.aku.edu/pakistan_fhs_mc_surg_urol/59