Document Type





OBJECTIVE: To determine the triggers of blood transfusion in patients undergoing percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PCNL).

STUDY DESIGN: Observational study.

PLACE AND DURATION OF STUDY: The Aga Khan University Hospital, Karachi, from 1988 to 2007.

METHODOLOGY: The percutaneous surgery database was retrospectively reviewed to identify patients with postoperative haemorrhage and need for blood transfusion. Blood loss was estimated by the postoperative drop in haemoglobin factored by the quantity of any blood transfusion. Various patients and procedure-related factors were assessed for association with total blood loss or blood transfusion requirement using stepwise univariate, forward multivariate regression analysis.RESULTS: A total of 326 procedures were performed in 316 patients. Two hundred and thirty two procedures were included in the study. There were 167 males and 65 females. The mean age was 41+14 years. The mean haemoglobin drop was 1.68 +1.3 gm/dL. The overall blood transfusion rate was 14.2%. Stepwise multivariate regression analysis showed that female gender (p = 0.003), staghorn stone (p = 0.023), stone fragmentation with ultrasound (p = 0.054) and chronic renal failure (p = 0.001) were significantly predictive of the need for blood transfusion.

CONCLUSION: Chronic renal failure, female gender, presence of staghorn calculi and stone fragmentation using ultrasonic device were predictive of blood transfusion in this cohort of patients.


Journal of the College of Physicians and Surgeons Pakistan