Impact of Immunofluorescence on the Histological Pattern of Pediatric Kidney Biopsies from Northern Pakistan

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Kidney biopsy is an investigation for diagnosis and prognosis of a variety of nephritides. It also influences therapeutic options. Immunofluorescence (IMF) greatly adds in identifying the pathologies which may not be obvious on light microscopy (L/M), such as IgM, IgA nephropathy, pauci-immune glomerulonephritis, and anti-glomerular basement membrane disease. We present here data of 170 pediatric kidney biopsies from July 2005 to December 2009 from Department of Nephrology and Hypertension, Lady Reading Hospital, Peshawar, Pakistan. The study was undertaken to see whether IMF would alter the histological pattern of pediatric kidney biopsies and to compare these data with an earlier data from our department of 415 pediatric kidney biopsies done over 7-year period from 1998 to 2005, which were analyzed with L/M alone. Out of 170 kidney biopsies using L/M and IMF, IgM turns out to be most common pattern (20%%), followed by minimal change disease (MCD) (17.05%%), focal and segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS) (15.88%%), chronic sclerosing glomerulonephritis (Chr. sclerosing GN) (12.35%%), mesangio proliferative glomerulonephritis (MPGN) (7.65%%), mesangio capillary glomerulonephritis (MCGN) (6.47%%), membranous glomerulonephritis (Mem. GN) (5.29%%), IgA nephropathy (5.29%%), cresentic glomerulonephritis (Cres. GN) (3.53%%), lupus nephritis (2.96%%), and others (3.53%%). Comparing these results of 170 cases with 415 renal biopsies without IMF, IgM dominated the histological pattern in IMF group whereas MCD followed by FSGS and MPGN were prominent in group without IMF. Therefore, variation in the overall histological pattern with IMF technique proved statistically significant (p < 0.0001). Addition of IMF has altered the frequency of MCD, a change from 24%% (100/415) to 17%% (29/170), FSGS from 18.3%% (76/415) to 15.88%% (27/170), and MPGN from 17.35%% (72/415) to 7.65%% (13/170).


Renal Failure