CC chemokine receptor 5 Δ32 polymorphism: association analysis and allele distribution among cutaneous leishmaniasis patients from Pakistan.

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Background: Human immunodeciency virus (HIV)/leishmaniasis coinfection is a matter of deep concern worldwide. CC chemokine receptor 5 (CCR5) functions as a co-receptor for HIV entry into host immune cells with an elevated expression observed during leishmaniasis, promoting parasite persistence. A 32 bp deletion (Δ32) in the CCR5 gene provides protection against HIV infection and increased resistance to Leishmania infection.
Methods: In this study, CCR5-Δ32 distribution within Pakistani population with cutaneous leishmaniasis was investigated to evaluate genetic susceptibility to HIV infection. CCR5-Δ32 polymorphism was analyzed in 276 leishmaniasis patients and 119 uninfected healthy controls. Genotypic and allelic frequencies were evaluated and tested for Hardy–Weinberg equilibrium (HWE).
Results: The overall Δ32 allele frequency was 6.58% of the population (n = 395). There was a signicant difference (p < 0.05) in the geographical distribution of Δ32 allele which was higher in the northern region of the country when compared with the south. Five individuals were identied to be homozygous for the Δ32 allele which has not been reported before from Pakistan. However, no signicant association was observed between CCR5-Δ32 and cutaneous leishmaniasis. Conclusion: The higher frequency of CCR5 wild-type allele among leishmaniasis patients may suggest an increased risk of HIV infection and also support its facilitative role in Leishmania infection.


Journal of cutaneous pathology.