Document Type

Article

Department

Medicine

Abstract

Objective: To evaluate the frequency and risk factors associated with clinically significant contrast-induced nephropathy(CIN) in patients undergoing non-emergent coronary angiography.

Study Design: Descriptive study.

Place and Duration of Study: The Aga Khan University Hospital, Karachi, from January 2005 to December 2007.

Methodology: Case records of patients who underwent coronary angiography with a serum creatinine of ≥ 1.5 mg/dl atthe time of procedure were evaluated. Clinically significant contrast induced nephropathy (CSCIN) was defined as either doubling of serum creatinine from baseline value within a week following the procedure or need for emergency hemodialysis after the procedure.Results: One hundred and sixteen patients met the inclusion criteria. Mean age was 64.0 ± 11.5 years, 72% were males.Overall prevalence of CIN was 17% (rise of serum creatinine by ≥ 0.5 mg/dl) while that of clinically significant CIN (CSCIN) was 9.5% (11 patients). Patients with CSCIN had significantly lower left ventricular ejection fraction (p = 0.03, OR: 0.24;95% CI = 0.06 – 0.91) and higher prevalence of cerebrovascular disease (p < 0.001, OR: 14.66; 95% CI = 3.30 – 65.08).Mean baseline serum creatinine was significantly higher, 3.0 ± 1.5 vs. 2.0 ± 1.1 mg/dl (p = 0.03, OR: 1.47; 95% CI =1.03 – 2.11) whereas mean GFR estimated by Cockcroft-Gault formula was significantly lower at 25 ± 7.4 vs. 41.0 ± 14.6ml/minute (p = 0.001, OR = 0.89, 95% CI = 0.84 – 0.95) at the time of procedure in patients with CSCIN. Mean length ofhospital stay was significantly higher in this group compared to those without CIN, 9.0 ± 5.1 vs. 3.0 ± 3.2 days (p = 0.001,OR = 1.31, 95% CI = 1.12 – 1.54). Multivariate analysis revealed low GFR (p = 0.001, OR = 0.88; 95% CI = 0.82 – 0.95)and low ejection fraction (p = 0.03, OR = 0.20; 95% CI = 0.04 – 0.91) to be independent factors associated withCSCIN. No significant differences were noted between the two groups in patients with hypertension, diabetes andheart failure.

Conclusion: CSCIN is a significant concern in high risk groups despite prophylaxis. Patients with lower EF, cerebrovascular disease and low GFR at the time of procedure are more likely to have CIN.

Publication

JCPSP: Journal of the College of Physicians and Surgeons--Pakistan

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