Document Type



Community Health Sciences


Economic evaluation (EE)/cost effectiveness analysis(CEA) of healthcare programmes is an emerging area, yet the resource base to apprehend EE/CEA is very limited in Pakistan. This paper attempts to fill this gap by providing a basic text in the field of EE with special reference to Pakistan. We used four dimensional criteria (available, relevant, complete and accurate) for reviewing the EE contents in the locally available textbooks and reading material on public health. We find CEA as core competency and skill of medical doctors in undergraduate medical curricula yet we could not find EE contents in the recommended textbooks. We find that economic evaluation entails two rules: both cost and effectiveness should be included in the analysis, and there must be a comparison of at least two drugs or medical intervention. We describe EE/CEA in this article and recommend that EE content should be included in the medical and public health curriculum in Pakistan.


JPMA. The Journal of the Pakistan Medical Association